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Architecture in Poland



The first architectural monuments found on Polish territory are dated in tenth century. They were built in the style of preromanian monuments on the hill Salwator in Krakow, the remains of the rotunda of St. Felix on Wawel Hill and the ruins of Ostrow Lednicki near Gniezno.




Centuries XI- XIII in Poland was dominated by the architecture in the Romanesque style, where thick walls and small windows of the apse were characteristic in these buildings. Their specimens can be found among others in Krakow, Opatów and Tuma.





In the thirteenth century on Polish lands disseminate the Gothic style with large windows and soaring towers, monuments to this architecture include, among other things Cathedral in Wroclaw, Wawel or town halls Torun and Wroclaw.




Another style which became popular in Poland in the sixteenth century, referring to the ancient buildings which are an example of Renaissance architecture, is the parapet on the Wawel Castle and town halls in Poznan and Sandomierz.





The second half of the seventeenth century brought with it the beginnings of Baroque architecture, full of rich ornamentation, gilding and references to flora and fauna. An example of buildings in this style is the Wilanow Palace and Aula Leopoldina in Wroclaw.




The first half of the eighteenth century was marked by the style rokkoko, which departed from monumental and favored small residences, garden palaces and refined to ornaments. An example might be a Saxon Gardens, Palace Brühl.





In the second half of the eighteenth century, one could observe fatigue glamor of earlier styles and return to the simple, elegant forms of antiquity and the Renaissance. Examples of such structures include residence in Pulawy, palaces in Vilnius.




In the nineteenth century it appeared in mainstream neoclassical architecture, which referred to classicist buildings in Poland. This trend include the facade of Belvedere Palace, the Grand Theater in Warsaw and scattered throughout the country manor houses.




The end of the nineteenth and early twentieth century was a period of secession a style in architecture also known as the French art nouveaux, which was characterized by a rich, referring to the world of flora and fauna ornaments and abstract form of buildings. The buildings of this period were supposed to be an expression of their functionality. From this period comes most of the houses in Krakow, Gdansk and Wroclaw. The last phase of secession, however, was widespread in Poland in the 30s of the twentieth century by modernism. A characteristic feature of this style was the economy of form and highlighting its qualities of solidity and durability. Modernism in Poland reigned after the war and became a direct ancestor of socialist realism.





Socrealism widespread in Poland at the end of 50 years. It was characterized by monumental, massive buildings and large spaces. An example of entire cities built in the spirit of socialist realism is Nowa Huta or New Tychy.



At the end of 80 years of the twentieth century appeared in Poland postmodernism, which sought a return to traditional forms of street and denounced the industrialized construction of modernism and social realism. In fact, the remainder of the twentieth century was marked by erecting ‘seals’ buildings fill the urban space, in places where war destroyed buildings, or where it can be better exploited.



Today in Poland there are two visible trends in the architectural, nostalgic seeking to return to the old forms, it can be observed in Szczecin and Elblag and characteristic of Krakow and Warsaw neomodern.


"To create architecture is to ask questions (...) Get close to your own responses "

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